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第113期:寄养及教槽料补饲对全期生长的影响:对弱仔有益但可能不适合壮仔

2017-12-27 10:47| 发布者: 29625248| 查看: 2004| 评论: 0|原作者: 朱滔|来自: 猪营养国际论坛CSIS


2017. J. Anim. Sci. 95(11): 4926-4944
寄养及教槽料补饲对全期生长的影响:对弱仔有益但可能不适合壮仔
A. M. S. Huting, K. Almond, I. Wellock and I. Kyriazakis

母猪繁殖力巨大进步导致了产仔数的增加,与此同时弱仔数比例也显著上升。控制弱仔对同一批仔猪体重差异的影响有许多管理手段。但是这些手段对正常仔猪生产性能的影响通常被忽略掉。本试验研究了不同乳仔猪组成(通过寄养调整)和教槽料补饲对仔猪(弱仔猪:体重≤1.25kg;壮仔:体重1.50-2.00kg)断奶前行为和短期、长期生长性能的影响。仔猪在出生后通过寄养调整每胎乳猪组成,一组为均匀组(每胎仔猪要么都是弱仔猪,要么都是壮仔),一组为混合组(每胎仔猪一半为弱仔猪,一半为壮仔)。其中一半胎数补饲教槽料,另一半无教槽料。评估仔猪在哺乳期间和在料槽边的行为,使用绿色染料来区别是否食用了教槽料。乳猪组成和初生重对断奶重有互作(P < 0.001)。弱仔猪在混合组中比在均匀组中体重更轻(6.93vs. 7.37 kg),而且壮仔猪在混合组中较均匀组表现更好(8.93 vs. 7.96kg)。窝增重并不受乳猪组成的影响(P=0.565)。乳头位置在第10天就对壮仔猪生长性能有影响(P<0.001),当均匀组中壮仔猪位于中靠后的乳头时对生长性能不利。教槽料补饲并不能影响任何组仔猪的断奶重(P>0.05)。但是乳猪组成显著影响教槽料采食量(P=0.046)和粪便颜色(P=0.022),均匀组中壮仔猪采食教槽料最多,粪便颜色最绿。此外,均匀组壮仔猪不采食教槽料的比例较低(P=0.002)。混合组和壮仔猪在断奶时的体重优势维持到整个生产阶段。总之,降低圈内体重差异(均匀组)对低出生重仔猪有益,而重初生重仔猪的优势在整个生长期都会消失。尽管均匀组中壮仔猪采食了最多的教槽料,但其生长性能还是不如混合组中的壮仔猪。

What is good for small piglets might not be good for big piglets: The consequences of cross-fostering and creep feed provision on performance to slaughter
A. M. S. Huting, K. Almond, I. Wellock and I. Kyriazakis

Major improvements in sow prolificacy have resulted in larger litters but, at the same time, increased the proportion of piglets born light weight. Different management strategies aim to enhance the performance of, and limit light-weight piglet contribution to, BW variation within a batch; however, consequences on heavy-weight litter mates are often neglected. This study investigated the effects of different litter compositions, created through cross-fostering, and the provision of creep feed on preweaning behavior and short- and long-term performance of piglets born either light weight (≤1.25 kg) or heavy weight (1.50–2.00 kg). Piglets were cross-fostered at birth to create litters with only similar-sized piglets (light weight or heavy weight; UNIFORM litters) and litters with equal numbers of light-weight and heavy-weight piglets (MIXED litters); half of the litters were offered creep feed and the remaining were not. Piglet behavior during a suckling bout and at the creep feeder was assessed; a green dye was used to discern between consumers and nonconsumers of creep feed. The interaction between litter composition and birth weight (BiW) class influenced piglet BW at weaning (P< 0.001): piglets born light weight were lighter at weaning in MIXED litters than those in UNIFORM litters (6.93 vs. 7.37 kg); however, piglets born heavy weight performed considerably better in MIXED litters (8.93 vs. 7.96 kg). Total litter gain to weaning was not affected (P = 0.565) by litter composition. Teat position affected heavy-weight piglet performance by d 10 (P < 0.001), with heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters being disadvantaged when suckling the middle and posterior teats. Creep feed provision did not affect BW at weaning(P > 0.05) for either BiW class. However, litter composition significantly affected daily creep feed consumption (P = 0.046) and fecal color (P = 0.022), with heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters consuming the highest amount of creep feed and having the greenest feces. In addition, a lower number of heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters were classified as nonconsumers (P =0.002). The weight advantage heavy-weight and light-weight piglets had at weaning when reared in MIXED and UNIFORM litters, respectively, was sustained throughout the productive period. In conclusion, reducing BW variation within litter (UNIFORM litters) was beneficial for piglets born light weight but not for piglets born heavy weight; the latter were disadvantaged up to slaughter. Although heavy-weight piglets in UNIFORM litters consumed the greatest amount of creep feed, this was not able to overcome their growth disadvantage compared with heavy-weight piglets in MIXED litters.

来源:猪营养国际论坛CSIS    翻译:朱滔

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