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仔猪断奶重影响因素研究:初乳摄入量、母猪采食量、哺乳期日粮

2017-11-13 11:49| 发布者: IMCTT| 查看: 677| 评论: 0|原作者: IMCTT|来自: 猪营养国际论坛CSIS

  2017. J. Anim. Sci. 95(10): 4499-4509
  仔猪断奶重影响因素研究:初乳摄入量、母猪采食量、哺乳期日粮
  A. Craig, A. Gordon and E. Magowan

  现代母猪在哺乳期采食量较低。本试验的主要目的在于研究采食量和营养浓度对断奶重的影响及其互作。同时也研究了一些关键因素,比如说初乳摄入量、仔猪存活、断奶重和初乳产量。82头母猪分为4组,2(日粮浓度)×2(采食量)双因素试验设计。高日粮浓度为15.8MJ/kg消化能、1.3%总赖氨酸;低日粮浓度为15.2 MJ/kg消化能、1.2%总赖氨酸。高采食量为:分娩后饲喂量每天增加0.5kg,直到采食量达到10kg/d;低采食量为分娩后饲喂量每天增加0.3kg,直到采食量达到7.5kg/d。收集18头分娩母猪的数据,分析影响初乳摄入量的因素。试验结果表明日粮浓度和饲喂水平之间没有互作。低饲喂水平母猪在哺乳期间的失重较高饲喂水平母猪多10.6kg(P<0.001)。饲喂高营养日粮母猪失重比低营养日粮组多6.4kg(P = 0.018)。日粮营养浓度对采食量无影响。哺乳期间,与低采食量组相比,高采食量组母猪的仔猪窝增重高326g/d(P<0.001),并且母猪断奶时体重更大(114kg VS. 104kg,P<0.001)。尽管高营养浓度组断奶窝重与低营养浓度组相似,但是高营养浓度组窝日增重高190g/d(P=0.018)。192头母猪数据的回归分析结果表明断奶窝重的主要影响因素是哺乳期采食量、赖氨酸摄入量和哺乳第14-28天的消化能和赖氨酸摄入量。哺乳第0-7天哺乳效率为0.65,然后在第21-28天降低至0.42。初乳摄入量主要影响因素为24h体重、初生重、分娩时间。初乳产量与出生窝重显著相关(P=0.004,pseudo R2 = 54.5%)。仔猪断奶重与3周龄体重显著正相关(P<0.001),但是与母猪胎次(P=0.035)、出生活仔数(P=0.045)、雌猪(P<0.001)显著负相关。在45个指标中,仔猪断奶前存活率只与出生24h-48增重有关正相关(P=0.008)。总之,哺乳后半期采食量、消化能摄入量和赖氨酸摄入量是断奶窝重的主要影响因素。

  Understanding the drivers of improved pig weaning weight by investigation of colostrum intake, sow lactation feed intake, or lactation diet specification

  A. Craig, A. Gordon and E. Magowan

  Modern sows have low feed intake (FI) during lactation. The main aim of this study was to understand interactions between and separate effects of FI and nutrient density on litter weaning weight (WW). Key drivers of colostrum intake (CIn), piglet survival, WW, and colostrum yield (CY) were also investigated. Sows (n = 82) were offered a High (15.8 MJ/kg DE; 1.3% total lysine) or Normal (15.2 MJ/kg DE; 1.28% totallysine) specification lactation diet at either a High (feed allowance increased by 0.5 kg/d after farrowing until intake reached 10 kg/d) or Low (feed allowance was increased by 0.3 kg/d after farrowing until intake reached 7.5 kg/d) feeding level (2 × 2 factorial design). A subset of sows (n = 18) were observed during farrowing to collect data on factors affecting CIn. No interactions were found between diet specification and feeding level. Sows on the Low feeding level lost 10.6 kg more BW during lactation than those on the High feeding level (P < 0.001). Sows offered the High specification diet lost 6.4 kg more BW than those on the Normal specification diet (P = 0.018). Diet specification had no effect on ADFI. Between birth and weaning, litters of sows offered the High feeding level grew 326 g/d faster (P < 0.001) and were heavier at 28 d(114 kg; P < 0.001) compared with those of sows offered the Low feeding level (104 kg). Although litters from sows offered the High specification diet had WW similar to that of litters from sows offered the Normal specification diets, their ADG was 190 g/d greater (P = 0.018) between birth and weaning. A regression analysis was completed using data from 192 sows and indicated that FI and lysine intake throughout lactation and DE and lysine intake from 14 to 28 d of lactation were the main drivers of litter WW. Lactation efficiency was 0.65 from 0 to 7 d and decreased to 0.42 from 21 to 28 d. Variation in CIn was mainly explained by 24-h weight, birth weight, and the duration of farrowing. Colostrum yield was significantly correlated (P = 0.004; pseudo R2 = 54.5%) with litter birth weight. Piglet WW was positively correlated with 3-wk weight (P < 0.001) but negatively correlated with sow parity (P = 0.035), number born alive (P = 0.045), and being female (P < 0001). Out of 45 variables, preweaning piglet survival was positively correlated (P = 0.008) with only 24- to 48-h weight gain. In conclusion, lactation FI and DE and lysine intake in the second half of lactation were the main drivers of litter WW.
  翻译:朱滔 猪营养国际论坛CSIS

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